한국인의 복지의식에 대한 연구: 사회통합을 위한 정책과제 = Study on Welfare Attitudes in Korea

한국인의 복지의식에 대한 연구: 사회통합을 위한 정책과제 = Study on Welfare Attitudes in Korea

노대명 ; 전지현

한국인의 복지의식 ; 사회통합
◈ 복지의식에 대한 개념정립 및 분석모형 구축
◈ 한국사회 복지의식에 대한 실태진단
◈ 한국사회 복지의식에 대한 쟁점분석
◈ 복지의식과 관련된 사례 분석
◈ 복지의식에 대한 국제비교

Welfare politics in Korea began with the competition of electoral programs between major political forces since the regional elections of 2010. It means that it is more important to know the welfare attitude of the voters than ever, in so far as politicians want to win in an election. However it is still difficult to predict the changing figures of welfare attitude and explain the main factors that determine their attitude toward different welfare issues.
Following the welfare attitude theories, public preferences for social welfare policy are determined by different factors. If the public are purely self-interested, those who have greater access to resources and more education should be less supportive of welfare policies. If the welfare attitude is a product of institutional context, the preferences for welfare policies should follow the norms and values formed by welfare regimes. If the public are ideologically motivated, they should be more supportive of welfare policies and welfare expanding beyond the fiscal restraints. However it will be impossible to explain the welfare attitude by certain theory that highlight only one factor.
The general attitudes of the public toward social welfare policies are more complex. In this sense, welfare attitude is not a singular entity, but an aggregate of different attitudes. For example, France and Sweden have more divergent welfare attitudes between Left and Right political forces. In Korea and Spain, public attitudes show more convergent toward certain redistribution and welfare policies issues: more social protection for poors and unemployeds, more tax for higher income earners, etc. Welfare attitudes in Japan are more convergent but somewhat prudent, because this country stay yet in the long tunnel of economic downturn and social disintegration. It is very natural that welfare policies have not for the developed and developing countries, and that they have followed divergent paths. That is also consistent with the result of previous studies.
We have payed more attention to the public formulate attitudes on redistribution principles and welfare policies. Since 1990s, income inequality and unemployment have rapidly increased in most developed countries and certain developing countries. With these economic and social contexts, the welfare policies in favour of redistribution are very strongly favored by the public in many countries. However it is not for all welfare issues, but for certain issues as like redistribution principles. We could find also the profound divergence in welfare attitude toward tax system reform and policies for working population.
It will be important to explain why there are various welfare models and strategies according to countries and regions. For this, we have explored the framing contexts and the political systems of each countries. Our study showed that the mass media has formulated welfare attitude, and that the political party system and political representation system have deformed the mean welfare attitude.
This study shows evidence that the public in Korea are not simply influenced by political ideologies, nor self-interested in their policy preferences. We propose instead that the welfare attitudes are determined by different factors inter-related and in specific situation. For certain welfare issues, the self-interest is more important. But for the other issues, the political cleavage is more determinant. In this sense, the citizens do not support the overall expansion of welfare programs, but certain programs or certain groups. In 2011, Koreans support welfare expansion as principle or policy direction, but they demand strongly the justice in tax system and the efficacity in public administration system.
Abstract 1

요약 5

제1장 서론 19
제1절 연구목적 19
제2절 연구방법 22
제3절 연구내용과 그 한계 29

제2장 이론적 검토 33
제1절 복지의식이란 무엇인가 34
제2절 복지의식에 대한 선행연구 42
제3절 복지의식과 복지정치 59

제3장 한국 복지의식의 현 주소 77
제1절 개요 77
제2절 응답자의 인구사회학적 특성 79
제3절 재분배원칙과 복지제도에 대한 태도 89
제4절 복지재정 확충에 따른 조세부담 의식 102
제5절 복지의식과 복지정치 110
제6절 복지태도에 영향을 미치는 요인 115
제7절 소결 118

제4장 복지의식의 국제비교 123
제1절 개요 123
제2절 응답자의 인구사회학적 특성 125
제3절 계층이동과 노동소득 분배에 대한 태도 132
제4절 재분배원칙과 복지에 대한 태도 140
제5절 계층의식과 복지태도 147
제6절 정치적 성향과 복지태도 153
제7절 소결 160

제5장 복지의식 연구의 쟁점과 과제 165
제1절 복지의식 연구의 쟁점 165
제2절 정치적 성향이 복지의식을 규정하는가 166
제3절 세계화 시대, 각국의 복지의식은 변화하였는가 181
제4절 소결 197

제6장 결론 및 정책제언 201
제1절 연구결과의 함의 201
제2절 정책제언 205

참고문헌 209
보고서 번호
연구보고서 2011-19
KIHASA 주제 분류
사회보장 일반 > 사회통합
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