Marriage, Child-Rearing and Family Life in a Low Fertility Society

Marriage, Child-Rearing and Family Life in a Low Fertility Society

김두섭 ; 차승은 ; 송유진 ; 천희란 ; 김정석

Publication Year
Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs
▣ 주요연구내용
- 한국처럼 초저출산 단계에 진입한 다른 국가들의 가족생활 실태와 그들의 정책적 대응방안 제시
- 출산을 장려하기 위해 그 동안 시행된 정책기초와 다양한 사회문화적 요인들, 특히 가족환경, 가족문화와 관련성을 분석한 연구논문들과 정책보고서들을 검토

Korea has experienced a drastic decrease in fertility in recent years. To
better understand the causal mechanisms of fertility decline, many previous
studies have focused on economic aspects related to childbirth and
child-rearing. However, socio-cultural factors, such as values and attitudes
toward marriage and fertility, perception of costs and benefits of having a
child, and women's struggles to balance work and child-care, are also of
great importance in explaining recent fertility decline.
The main purpose of this study is to explore the socio-cultural factors
related to recent decline in fertility. This study focuses on analyzing recent
changes in attitudes toward marriage, parenthood, and family. Attention is also
focused on analyzing everyday family life and child-rearing behaviors. In an
effort to provide a comparative perspective, policy responses to the low level
of fertility in Singapore, Japan, Taiwan, and European countries are reviewed
in this study.
For the purpose of analyzing attitudes and behaviors related to marriage,
fertility and child-rearing, this study utilizes micro-data from the Population
Censuses and Vital Statistics of Korea for the period 1990-2005. Micro-data
from the 2003 National Survey of Fertility and Family Health, and the 2005
National Survey of Marriage and Fertility, conducted by the Korea Institute
for Health and Social Affairs, are also analyzed in this study. Other
documents such as published and unpublished reports from the Korea National
Statistical Office are used to analyze the demographic characteristics as well
as recent changes in fertility. Results of analyses reveal that women's attitudes toward marriage, timing of
marriage and birth as well as total fertility rate are different according to
socioeconomic status. Those with the lowest and the highest socioeconomic
status show the most drastic decline in fertility and have been more likely to
delay marriage and childbirth. A new pattern of socioeconomic differentials in
fertility is found among the recent marital cohort who married after the 1997
economic crisis. The level of recent fertility turns out to be highest among
those with upper-middle socioeconomic status, followed by those with the
highest socioeconomic status and those with the lowest status.
Results also show that recent fertility decline is associated with changing
attitudes toward parenthood, the commitment of time and money for
child-rearing, and the difficulties of women in balancing work and the
maternal role. Recent marital cohorts tend to perceive the high economic and
psychological costs of having a child more sensitively. Mainly due to low
levels of social support and father's share of child-care activities, most women
seem to quit their jobs when they give birth. As daycare centers for children
aged between 0 and 2 are not widely available, working mothers tend to rely
on their grandparents and relatives. These circumstances seem to lead young
couples to delay their marriage and having a child, and to have less children.
Results of this study imply that pro-natal policy makers need to pay more
attention to recent changes in family values as well as the economic and
psychological costs and benefits of having a child. In order to achieve
effective policy interventions, we need more detailed and updated information
on differential fertility. It is recommended that more comprehensive studies
focused on family strategy and the decision making process of parenthood
need to be conducted.
Table Of Contents
제1장 서론

제1절 연구배경
제2절 연구 목적과 필요성
제3절 연구 내용과 방법

제2장 선행연구 고찰

제1절 결혼의 지연
제2절 출산의 연기와 초저출산
제3절 사회경제적 차별출산력
제4절 성 불평등과 출산력

제3장 결혼과 출산행태의 변화

제1절 결혼가치관의 변화
제2절 초혼연령의 상승
제3절 출산에 대한 가치관과 행위의 연계성
제4절 첫 출산의 지연과 출산간격의 변화
제5절 사회경제적 차별출산력 분석

제4장 자녀양육과 가족생활의 실태

제1절 자녀양육의 경제적, 시간적 비용
제2절 여성의 삶의 변화와 자녀양육
제3절 자녀양육의 현황과 차별성
제4절 혼인상태의 변화와 재혼에 관한 태도

제5장 가족생활 변화에 따른 향후 정책과제

제1절 과거 정책의 개관
제2절 새로마지 플랜 2010
제3절 외국의 출산장려 및 가족정책
제4절 향후 정책과제

제6장 결론 및 요약
Local ID
협동연구 2007-02-02
KIHASA Research
Subject Classification
Population and family > Responses to fertility decline
Population and family > Responses to population aging
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