저출산 고령화대응 영세자영업자 생활실태연구

제목
저출산 고령화대응 영세자영업자 생활실태연구
A Study of the Living Status of the Self-Employed to Respond to Low Fertility and Aging
저자

박종서이상영; 이삼식; 손창균; 신현웅정홍원; 박수지; 신화연; 김지연; 윤여원; 이소정; 홍인정

키워드
자영업자; 자영업자의 소득과 지출; 노후준비; 출산과 양육
발행연도
2012
발행기관
한국보건사회연구원
초록
복지서비스와 관련하여, 보건소가 추진 중인 맞춤형 방문보건사업의 대상자에 영세자영업자를 포함하는 방안을 고려, 일반가구에 비해 장애인 가원이 존재할 가능성이 높은 자영업 가구에 대한 정책적 관심이 필요하며, 노인가구의 경우 자격기준을 완화하여 비용부담을 경감하는 접근이 필요

The share of the self-employed in total employment in Korea is very high. As of 2008, the share of the Korean self-employed was 31.3%, nearly twice as much as the OECD average of 15.8%. In Particular, after the 1998 Asian Financial Crisis, the share had risen to 30% of total employment. After that, there was a downturn in its share, and in 2003 when the Credit Crisis occurred, it largely declined. And since 2006, it has sharply fallen again.
The self-employed sector has a large share of the Korean economy, but its productivity and competitiveness is considered to be low. It is widely agreed that the share of the self-employed is quite large compared to the Korea’s economic scale, but there are growing concerns that the abrupt restructuring of the sector can have a negative effect on Korea’s economy. Therefore, it is required to come up with proper measures so that the restructuring of the self-employed sector is carried out gradually, and the household economy of the self-employed is not undermined in the process of the restructuring.
Very aware of this, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs (KIHASA) conducted a large- scale survey on the living status of the self-employed with less than 5 employees as of December 2011. Based on the results, the KIHASA understood the current status of health, child birth, child-rearing environment, welfare services, the preparation of post-retirement life, and social participation of the self-employed, and examined ways to promote related policies.
The survey analysis finds that the poverty rate of the self-employed is low, but the overall income level is quite lower than that of paid workers. The result analyzed by income quintile is also the same, meaning that the income of self employed people is lower than that of paid workers.
When it comes to the childbirth rate, the fertility rate of the self-employed seems to be getting lower. The expected number of children of the self-employed is predicted to be fewer than that of total fertile women, and the self-employed plan to have fewer children compared to the fertile women due to various restrictions. Therefore, measures are needed to reconcile work and family life and to make the self-employed be direct beneficiaries of old age income security system so that they can feel comfortable about child-bearing and ?rearing.
Against people’s expectations, the survey results show that the overall health status of small business owners is better than the result of the Korea National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey for the general public. Nevertheless, considering their working conditions, it is necessary to strengthen healthcare services for small business owners who have not benefitted from the social security system.
As to the preparation of post-retirement life, the retirement age that the self-employed wish is higher than that of paid workers. Low income self-employed people are highly likely to face unprepared post retirement life if they do not fully prepare stable old age income during their work period. Therefore, the national level support programs for old age income security are required so that the self-employed themselves can secure their own old age income during their work period.
For the career history of the self-employed, more than half of the self-employed with less than 5 employees were paid workers before they became self-employed, and most of male self-employed people were paid workers before running their own businesses. More and more people in their 40s and 50s are getting self-employed, and the average period working as a paid worker is longer than the period working as a self-employed. In addition, it is very rare to change their businesses and to have plans on closing their businesses in the future. As a result, self-employed people are least likely to become paid workers again. Therefore, what is needed for the self-employed is to strengthen the welfare system and social security net for them, rather than promoting policy measures to transit self-employment into paid employment.
목차
Abstract

요 약

제1장 서론
제1절 연구의 배경 및 목적
제2절 연구방법
제3절 기존연구의 주요 쟁점

제2장 자영업자의 가구 및 사업체 일반 현황
제1절 인구사회학적 특성
제2절 가구의 소득, 지출 및 재산
제3절 주거실태
제4절 사업체 일반 현황
제5절 직업경력
제6절 요약 및 정책 제언

제3장 자영업자의 출산양육 실태
제1절 가임기 자영업자의 종사형태
제2절 가임기 자영업자의 출산행태
제3절 자영업자의 자녀 양육 실태
제4절 요약 및 정책 제언

제4장 자영업자의 건강 실태
제1절 자영업자의 건강수준 및 질병이환율
제2절 의료서비스 이용실태
제3절 의료서비스 미충족 욕구
제4절 건강보험 가입 현황
제5절 요약 및 정책 제언

제5장 자영업자의 노후준비 실태
제1절 일반적인 노후준비 실태
제2절 노후소득준비 실태
제3절 개인연금 가입실태
제4절 여가활동 실태
제5절 요약 및 정책제언

제6장 자영업자의 복지서비스 실태
제1절 자영업자의 돌봄서비스 욕구
제2절 노인과 장애인의 돌봄서비스 이용현황
제3절 요약 및 정책제언

제7장 자영업자의 삶의 만족도
제1절 행복도와 분야별 만족도
제2절 요약 및 정책제언

제8장 결론

참고문헌

부록 1. ‘저출산․고령화대응 자영업자 복지수요 조사’조사표
부록 2. 자영업자의 시간대 및 산업별 보육방법
보고서 번호
연구보고서 2012-47-31
ISBN
978-89-8187-911-2
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