지역사례(춘천시, 아산시, 보성군, 합천군 등) 비교를 통하여 출산율의 격차를 설명할 수 있는 지역의 구조적 맥락을 발견하고 이 구조적 차이의 정책적 함의를 도출
Birthrate in Korea has been lower than replacement level for a long period of time since 1983. Regional gap in birthrate is also gaping and has been so without much fluctuation for long. Although a number of research works were conducted to figure out causes and fabrics of the low birthrate issue and policy studies to up birthrate have exuberantly been done, there is not much sign of improvement of it. Therefore, it seems reasonable to infer that a new approach on this matter is required. By far, most researches into birthrate set their unit for analysis on individuals and focused on empirical assay based on other research materials, those that analyzed structural context of regions are hard to find. Additionally, as to policy directions, both central and local governments that are in charge of childbirth support apply a nationwide uniform standard without considering regional differences. Proper policy measures regarding these differences, unsurprisingly, are not materialized yet, despite the stark regional gap in birthrate. Under this background, the focal point of this study is to elucidate the relation between regional gap in childbirth capability and structural context of each region. On the basis of this analysis, the study aims to derive future policy directions per each type of region. The study targeted a pair of cities, one with high birthrate, Asan-si, and another with low birthrate, Chuncheon-si, and another pair of towns, one with high birthrate, Boseong-gun, and another with low birthrate region, Hapcheon-gun. And we compared structural context of targeted regions that could affect birthrate. We divided and analyzed four aspects of the structural context : demographic structure; industry and labor market structure; features of people’s daily lives; and features of regional resource and policies. According to this analysis, Chuncheon-si had a closed city structure, stagnant population and industrial labor market structure. Possibility of birthrate recovery in Chuncheon-si seemed to be very low. Thus, we believe the city needs an immediate improvement in economic environment for pregnancy and childbirth by securing jobs first. On the other hand, Asan-si, a dynamically developing city, had higher rate of female employment and more job opportunities. Yet, since most of those jobs for female workers were simple labor, only a handful of women who were in the early age of childbearing period were economically active. Asan-si, therefore, needs policy measures that can encourage more women to work. Furthermore, betterment of work-life balance and structural overhaul for gender equality are another issues to be handled regarding women’s economic activity. Boseong-gun, albeit its closed town structure, showed high participation ratio of women’s economic activities and had a widely-believed gender equality mindset due to its development of local industry and tourism. However, considering the hefty ratio of non-salary workers in the classification of status in employment among economically active population, the town is required to seek more suitable childrearing and financial support systems for its type of employment. Lastly, Hapcheon-gun had an open structure and maintained vigorous interactions with neighboring large cities. That said, residents possessed rather conservative family values and limited sense of gender equality. Naturally, we believe the town needs education and publicity programs that can broaden gender equality mentality and institutional efforts to upgrade corporate culture. Plus, regarding the high non-salary worker ratio among economically active female population, Hapcheon-gun also needs to come up with maternal support policies and financial aid measures for familial support. The most meaningful lesson of this study is that regional gap in birthrate stems from different structural fabric of each region. This lesson tells us that one or two uniformly applied measures for childbirth support will not be so beneficial. An across-the-board approach, such as enhancing awareness of industries, labor market, and the public, utilizing local resources, and developing proper policy measures. All in all, it is necessary to set a new direction for the low birthrate issue that overhauls the structural context of a given region comprehensively through systematic policy measures.
제1장 서론 제1절 연구의 배경 및 목적 제2절 연구 방법 및 연구 내용
제2장 이론적 배경 및 분석틀 제1절 이론적 배경 제2절 분석틀
제3장 지역의 인구학적 구조 제1절 지역별 합계출산율의 추이 제2절 총인구의 추이와 구조 제3절 출생 제4절 혼인 제5절 이동
제4장 생활세계의 특성 제1절 지역의 인문지리적 특성 제2절 가치관에서 생활세계로
제5장 산업 노동의 특성 제1절 지역의 산업적 특성 제2절 경제활동인구의 총괄적 특성 제3절 여성 경제활동인구의 특성