외국의 이민정책 변천과 사회경제적 영향

제목
외국의 이민정책 변천과 사회경제적 영향
Changes in Migration Policies and Their Socioeconomic Impacts in Foreign Countries
저자

임정덕

키워드
외국의 이민정책; 사회경제적 영향
발행연도
2011
발행기관
한국보건사회연구원
초록
◈ 외국의 이민정책 변천과정
◈ 외국 이민정책의 사회적 영향
◈ 외국 이민정책의 경제적 영향
◈ 한국의 외국인 이주정책 변화 및 외국인 이주민 현황
◈ 외국의 이민정책 사례분석을 통해서 본 향후 한국 이민정책의 나아갈 방향 제시

Most economies of advanced countries depend on migration labor more or less. Their labor market cannot supply enough labor forces because of limited resources as well as at an appropriate wage in a certain sector in the economy. International labor migration is a natural outcome of market principle based on the trade theory.
This study investigates the trend of international migration and characteristics of the migration flows. We try to compare migration policies of advanced countries and their impact on economy and society.
We could classify advanced countries into four categories by their differences in migration policies and social and political environments. Some countries were established by immigrants and their current policies also are favorable to migration. Most countries in Europe were helped by migration labors for their economic growth but they are conscious and cautious about the continuing inflow of uncontrolled migrants. Newly advanced countries in East Asia have relatively short migration history and they are very cautious on the permanent international migration.
The general trend of international migration has been steadily growing in the long run but it is affected international economic situation in the short run. The economic crisis occurred in 2008 influenced negatively on international migration to most advanced countries. Korea has been experiencing the same situation. Our study found that labor migration affects economy and is affected by economic condition but not in the case of humanitarian migration and other forms of migration like family reunion.
A main concern about substitutabilty of migrating workers with domestic workers turned out to be not valid in various empirical studies. In most cases migrating workers are employed in the industrial sectors where labor supply is not sufficient by domestic workers. Migrating labors may influence in lowering reservation wage.
All the advanced countries keep dual policies in accepting migrants by their skills. A highly skilled migrants is welcomed with various incentives and subsidies. On the other hand the migration of unskilled labors is controlled in many ways and they are encouraged to return to their home countries after the contract period expires. As a potential professional in the near future international students in host countries are encouraged to stay after graduation and have jobs in host countries.
목차
Abstract 1

제1장 서론 7
1. 연구의 배경 및 목적 7
2. 주요 연구내용 8

제2장 이민 및 이주노동력에 대한 정의와 변화 고찰 13
1. 이민의 정의와 종류 13
2. 이민의 흐름과 현황 15
3. 각국 이민 형태의 유형화 18
4. 이민의 경제적 요인 21
5. 국가별 특성 및 현황 26
6. 불법체류자에 대한 조치 55

제3장 이민의 사회적 영향 65
1. 노동시장 구조의 변화 66
2. 사회문제의 발생 69

제4장 이민의 경제적 영향 83
1. 내국 노동시장에 대한 영향 84
2. 재정, 경제적 영향 89
3. 고급 기술인력의 이민과 두뇌유출 문제 91

제5장 외국의 이민정책의 내용과 파급효과 97
1. 입국경로와 규모 97
2. 입국자의 관리 102
3. 불법체류자(비정규이민자) 정책 106
4. 이민정책의 국제공조와 수렴 현상 111
5. 사회통합 정책 113

제6장 한국의 이주민의 현황 및 이주정책 변화 137
1. 외국인노동자의 체류현황 및 특성 137
2. 한국 이민정책의 변천 141
3. 경제사회와의 관련 및 영향 146
4. 최근 동향 147
5. OECD 회원국과 한국의 이민흐름 ‧ 특성 비교 및 정책비교 151
6. 다문화가정의 현황 및 정책 170

제7장 결론 및 제언 179

참고문헌 183
보고서 번호
연구보고서 2011-37-8
ISBN
978-89-8187-820-7
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