기혼여성의 혼인상태별 생활시간 배분실태와 효율화 방안에 관한 연구
The State and Efficiency in Time Allocation of Married Korean Women by Marital Status
생활시간; 혼인상태; 경제활동; 직업유형; 가족공유시간
보건사회연구 제21권 제1호, pp.67-105
최근 자원으로서의 시간에 대한 개인의 인식은 인간의 생활을 영위하는 기초적 단위로서 시간의 가치활용도를 높이고 인간관계의 맥락을 심화시키며, 그들의 「삶의 질」을 극대화하는 핵심적인 가치를 부여하는데 초점을 맞추고 있다. 그렇지만 어느 누구에게나 정해져 있는 시간의 양(quantity)을 어떻게 효율적으로 사용하고, 필요한 분야 및 항목에 얼마나 배분하는가에 따라 시간의 질(quality)을 증대시킬 수 있다. 본 연구는 1999년 통계청에서 처음으로 실시한 자료를 심층 분석하는 것이다. 연구목적은 기혼여성의 혼인상태 및 사회경제적 특성에 따라 생활시간 배분이 어떻게 상이한지를 분석하고 문제점을 찾으며, 아울러 효율적 시간활용방안을 제시하고 정책적 지원방안도 함께 모색하는데 있다. 주요 결과는 우리나라 기혼여성의 생활시간 배분은 혼인상태에 따라 현저한 차이가 있었다는 점이다. 아울러 기혼여성의 경제활동여부도 생활시간 배분에 영향을 크게 미치고 있었다. 특히 이혼부인은 생계유지를 위하여 경제활동에 적극 참여해야 하기 때문에 적절한 시간배분에 문제점을 노출시키고 있었다. 이와 같은 일련의 분석연구는 우리나라 부인의 혼인상태, 연령, 경제활동참여 및 직업유형 등의 특성에 따라 생활방식과 삶의 질을 파악하고, 시간자원을 효율적으로 활용하는 데 필요한 기초자료로 제공될 수 있을 것이며, 궁극적으로 여성의 「삶의 질」을 향상시키는 데 기여할 것으로 사료된다.
Individual's view of time as resource has recently been geared toward making the best use of time as the basic unit of human life in order to deepen the context of interpersonal relationships and maximize quality of life. The quality of one's time can be enhanced depending on how efficiently one allocate, manage, and spend the quantity of time. The present study aims to conduct an in depth examination of the first time-allocation survey carried out in Korea by the National Statistical Office in 1999 and analyze differences and identify problems in time allocation among married women according to their marital status and socioeconomic characteristics. Along the way, strategic plans and policy implications are suggested for improving the efficiency of time allocation. Major findings can be summarized as follows. Patterns of time allocation among married women in Korea vary widely depending on their marital status. The largest portion of their time in general is spent on ‘self-care’ which includes time allocated for sleep. However, divorced women are found to spend the next largest portion of their time on work, while widowed women and women with spouse spend the second largest portion their time on 'leisure and friends/acquaintances'. Divorced women are found to spend significantly more time at work than widowed women and women with spouse do. This is presumably a result stemming from the fact that divorced women, unlike women with spouse present, are highly responsible for household livelihood not only because they do not have income-earning husbands, but also because they are generally younger than their widowed counterparts and therefore are less likely to have income-earning children. Divorced and widowed women in their thirties/forties as compared with other groups are found to spend much more time on work. This may be not only because they unlike women with spouse present－must fulfill their responsibilities and role as the main breadwinner for the family, but also because they are more likely to have school-aged children and are responsible for earning money for bringing up and educating them. Unemployed women, regardless of their marital status, are found to spend more time on household and family care than employed women. This implies that there is an accentuated policy need for paying particular heed to social support toward helping divorced women balance their work and family lives. Koreans in general－irrespective of socio-demographic factors such as gender, age, educational level, marital status, and employment status－are found to devote little time to voluntary activities, even during weekends or holidays. Non-working women and elderly people, in particular, spend very limited amount of time participating in voluntary activities despite having relatively much spare time. Divorced and widowed women as compared to women with spouse are found to suffer from lack of time to care for their preschool children due to other obligations. This calls for more policy attention to be placed on the protection of physical and emotional health of children in these female-headed households. For instance, the availability/accessibility of desired services should be ensured through the expansion of home-helper programs, educare centers, and financial aid programs. Based on these results, the following time management strategies and policy options can be considered. First, more time needs to be allocated, especially in the case of married non-working women, to voluntary activities. This can be made possible by reducing time spent on friends/acquaintances, leisure activities, and self-care. Second, it is hard for many divorced and widowed women to allocate much time to household and family care because they are responsible for engaging in income-earning activities. Therefore, social support should be provided to enhance the availability and accessibility of home-helper programs and daycare services. Third, cultural/leisure programs should be developed for working married women who generally have little or no time for leisure and interpersonal relationships. Forth, the longstanding inequalities in gender roles must be redressed. To do this would require men to escape from their traditional ‘male gender role’ and assume an increased, if not equal, role in household tasks and family care.
Ⅰ. 序論 Ⅱ. 理論 및 先行硏究 Ⅲ. 分析資料의 特性 및 內容 Ⅳ. 主要 分析結果 Ⅴ. 分析結果의 含意 및 生活時間 配分 效率化 方案 參考文獻 Summary