도시와 농촌간 의사외래의료이용 차이의 계량적 분석

제목
도시와 농촌간 의사외래의료이용 차이의 계량적 분석
An Econometric Analysis of the Difference between Outpatient Health Services in Urban and Rural Areas
저자

오영호

발행연도
1999-07-01
발행기관
한국보건사회연구원
Series
보건사회연구 제19권 제1호, pp.103-121
Journal Title
보건사회연구
초록
본 연구에서는 기존의 연구와는 달리 도시와 농촌간의 의료이용현상을 보다 정확히 파악하기 위해서 계량적인 분석방법을 이용하여 도시와 농촌간 외래의료이용의 차이가 존재하는지, 존재한다면 그 정도가 어느 정도인지를 실증적으로 검증하고자 하였다. 이 연구에서 사용된 자료는 한국보건사회연구원이 3년마다 조사하는 국민건강조사자료 중 1995년 자료를 사용하였으며, 이 조사자료는 급성이환, 만성이환, 주관적인 인식 건강상태 등과 의료이용과 보건의식행태 등 광범위한 국민의 보건의료정보를 제공한다. 건강수준과 관련된 변수는 상병일, 침상일, 장애일, 주관적인 인식건강상태, 급성이환여부, 만성이환여부 등의 건강관련 변수로부터 요인분석(factor analysis)을 사용하여 나온 두 개의 지수를 사용하였으며, 회귀분석접근법(regression-based approach)을 사용하여 의료이용의 차이가 존재하는지 평가하고, 그 정도를 계량화하였다. 외래의료이용여부 방정식에는 probit model을 사용하였고, 선택문제(selection problem)가 있는 외래의료방문횟수와 외래의료본인부담비 방정식은 이러한 문제를 해결하기 위하여 최우추정법(MLE)을 이용한 2단계추정방법을 사용하여 의료이용결정방정식과 함께 추정하였다. 연구분석결과 의사외래방문의 경우 도시와 농촌간 차이가 통계적으로 유의하게 존재하였으며, 그 차이의 정도는 농촌이 도시보다 이용경험률이 9% 높은 것으로 나타났으나, 이와는 반대로 의사방문횟수와 본인부담비의 경우는 것으로 나타났다.

This study assesses whether or not differences between outpatient health service utilization in urban and rural areas exist, and, if so, to try to quantify them. Data from the 1995 Korean National Health Survey was utilized. This survey is a nationwide household interview survey of non-institutionalized civilians which provides national data on the incidence of illness, the prevalence of chronic disease, and utilization of health services. Factor analysis was used to extract a common health index from several health-related variables such as sick days, bed days, disability days and perceived health status, to overcome potential multicollinearity. The regression-based approach was used for assessment and quantification of the difference. The probit model was applied to the first equation to discern use or nonuse of outpatient health services, with binary dependent variable. The two stage method with maximum likelihood was applied to the last equations for quantity of health service utilization, such as the number of outpatient visits and the logarithm of out-of-pocket costs with a continuous dependent variable with the selection problem. The results are as follows. The probability of outpatient visits, excluding drugstore visits, in rural areas is higher than in urban areas, but when drugstore visits were included the results turned out to be opposite. In terms of the quantity of outpatient health services, the number of visits and out-of-pocket costs in urban areas is higher than those in rural areas. In conclusion, there is still less access to outpatient health service in rural areas, in terms of the quantity of outpatient health services, after they go into the outpatient health service market. When drugstore health services were included, the difference between outpatient health services in rural and urban areas also became larger. Since the introduction of the national health insurance system, the difference in health services between rural and urban areas has apparently decreased. Health service utilization of residents in rural areas seemed to be even higher than that of urban area residents. The truth though, is that rural residents have less access to outpatient health service than urban residents. Therefore, in order to reduce this kind of difference, it is necessary that the demand for outpatient health services and the factors that affect it be studied.
목차
Ⅰ. 序論
Ⅱ. 資料 및 硏究方法
Ⅲ. 結果
Ⅳ. 結論
參考文獻
Summary
ISSN
1226-072X
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