This study investigated social relief schemes for serious adverse drug reactions in foreign countries and deduced lessons and implications for Korea to implement the scheme. A social relief scheme for serious adverse drug reactions provides reliefs for diseases and such health effects as disabilities or deaths that were caused by adverse reactions to pharmaceuticals prescribed at hospitals and clinics as well as those purchased at pharmacies notwithstanding their proper use. The US and the UK do not have specific relief schemes for adverse drug reactions but apply rules of strict liability or negligence. New Zealand and Nordic countries provide no-fault compensation schemes for health effects or injuries caused by medical treatments or medicinal products. Japan and Taiwan have operated the schemes since 1980 and 2000, respectively. In designing the scheme in Korea, we suggested that cases eligible for relief be confined to serious adverse reactions such as death or disability and then extended to diseases. It is desirable to encourage the reporting system of adverse drug reactions and quality use of medicines for the relief scheme to work efficiently.