Composite Deprivation Index; Deprivation; Mortality; Social exclusion; Socioeconomic factors
예방의학회지, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 392 - 402
Objectives : The aims of this paper were to develop the composite deprivation index (CDI) for the sub-district (Eup-Myen-Dong) levels based on the theory of social exclusion and to explore the relationship between the CDI and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR). Methods : The paper calculated the age adjusted SMR and we included five dimensions of social exclusion for CDI; unemployment, poverty, housing, labor and social network. The proxy variables of the five dimensions were the proportion of unemployed males, the percent of recipients receiving National Basic Livelihood Security Act benefits, the proportion of households under the minimum housing standard, the proportion of people with a low social class and the proportion of single-parent household. All the variables were standardized using geometric transformation and then we summed up them for a single index. The paper utilized the 2004-2006 National Death Registry data, the 2003-2006 national residents' registration data, the 2005 Population Census data and the 2005-2006 means-tested benefit recipients' data. Results : The figures were 115.6, 105.8 and 105.1 for the CDI of metropolitan areas (big cities), middle size cities and rural areas, respectively. The distributional variation of the CDI was the highest in metropolitan areas (8.9 - 353.7) and the lowest was in the rural areas (26.8 - 209.7). The extent and relative differences of deprivation increased with urbanization. Compared to the Townsend and Carstairs index, the CDI better represented the characteristics of rural deprivation. The correlation with the SMR was statistically significant and the direction of the CDI effects on the SMR was in accordance with that of the previous studies. Conclusions : The study findings indicated mortality inequalities due to the difference in the CDI. Despite the attempt to improve deprivation measures, further research is warranted for the consensus development of a deprivation index.