아시아 사회보장정책 비교연구 - 아시아 주요국 사회보장체계 비교를 중심으로

제목
아시아 사회보장정책 비교연구 - 아시아 주요국 사회보장체계 비교를 중심으로
A Comparative Study of Social Policy in Asian Countries : Focusing on the System of Social Protection Policies
저자

노대명; Goishi Norimichi; Wang Chunguang; Ku Yeun Wen; Somchai Jitsuchon; Giang Thanh Long; 김근혜

키워드
아시아; 복지국가; 사회보장; 사회정책; 국제비교연구
발행연도
2016
발행기관
한국보건사회연구원
초록
사회보장정책 연구에서 아시아 지역에 대한 비교연구의 필요성이 증가하고 있다. 최근 수년간 아시아 각국은 빠른 경제발전이라는 성과를 거둔 반면 소득불평등이 심화되는 등 새로운 사회문제에 직면해 있다. 그로 인해 아시아 각국의 사회보장정책은 세계 다른 어느 지역보다 빠른 속도로 성장하고 있다. 하지만 여기서 주목해야 할 대목은 양적 성장의 문제가 아니라 각국이 직면한 사회문제를 해결하는 다양한 경로와 전략의 문제이다. 이는 아시아 각국의 현 사회보장제도를 저발전된 것으로 폄하하기보다 그것이 가진 잠재력과 시사점에 초점을 맞추어 연구를 확대해야 할 이유를 말해준다. 서구복지제도에 대한 연구를 통해 새로운 경로와 전략이 어떻게 형성되고 어떠한 성과를 거두는지에 주목해야 하는 것이다. 비서구권 국가들, 특히 아시아 각국 시민들의 삶과 노동, 그리고 사회보장제도에 대한 비교연구가 어디로 어떻게 가야 하는지에 대한 깊이 있는 성찰이 필요한 시점이다.

In the 1990's, the studies on welfare state in East Asia have been greatly influenced by the experience of western welfare states, accepting Esping-Andersen’s arguments about three worlds of welfare regimes. However recent studies have begun to be led by the asian researchers who recognize the comparative study on social protection in asian countries as important academic and policy issues. It is considered that they have begun the critical reflections from the inside on the welfare state in this region. In this study, the authors intend to show various models and paths of Asian welfare states as they are, without developing the discourse as like East Asian welfare regime. Six authors, from Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam, explain the main issues and reform trends in social protection policies in each countries.
In Japan, the Abe's government, given the rapid growth of age-related spending, has implemented substantial structural reforms of the social security system. Some of the examples include : 1) increasing medical co-payments for individuals over 74 years to 20 per cent, 2) raising the retirement and eligibility ages for receiving public pension payments from 65 to 67 years or higher, and 3) reducing the ratio of the pension to average annual earnings to below 50 percent. It is interesting to see that the japanese government tried also to expand social insurance coverage to non-regular workers for the purpose of reducing the labour market duality and boosting youth employment.
In China, the social protection system will play an increasingly important role in economic growth, the balance of income distribution, poverty alleviation and maintenance of social cohesion. Although China has made great achievements in poverty alleviation, but has made little progress in terms of narrowing the income gap. Whether it is in urban areas or in rural areas, the income gap is far greater than that at the initial stage of reform. Current social protection system needs further reform, not only to achieve full coverage of main social insurance and social assistance programs, but also to reduce inequality between different groups and different regions in the same security system, to further increase the redistributive effect of the social security system.
In Taiwan, it was witnessed a remarkable development of statutory welfare systems in the decade of 1990s, including the realization of the National Health Insurance, unemployment insurance, allowances for elderly people, special protections for children and women against violence. And a lot of policy debates on National Pension Insurance was finally enacted in 2007 and implemented one year later. Faced with the challenges of population ageing and job precarity, now the policy debates pay much attention on the establishment of long-term care system and the reforms for a sustainable pension system.
In Thailand, the social protection system consist of two elements : One is the Social Security Scheme(SSS) in which has been implemented by the Social Insurance Act of 1954 and revised several times to 2015. SSS include seven social protection programs : Health insurance, Birth delivery, Death benefit, Disability benefit, Pension, Children assistance benefit, and Unemployment benefit. The problem is that SSS cover only slightly over one third of the labor force. And the other is a tax-based program as like Universal Social Pension, Universal Health Care, Universal Disability Aids, Patient Assistance Grant, etc. The fact that SSS covers only just above one third of workforce indicates the need to expand social protection for working Thai. Another gap in the social projection system is the welfare for young children before school age. Long-term care is also another area that has some gap in term of coverage. The financial sustainability of social protection system will be another problem to solve.
In Vietnam, current social protection system is facing the challenges as follow : The first is ensuring fiscal sustainability of the social pension scheme. The second challenge is accurately identifying beneficiaries for the efficiency of social assistance programs. For this, life-cycle approach will be appropriate in identifying various risks at different stages of life, so that policies and programs will be adaptive to such risks. The third is increasing coverage. Expanding coverage of the social pension scheme to include poor older persons living in rural and coastal areas. The fourth is improving the benefit delivery system. And the final challenge is enhancing the scheme’s monitoring and evaluation system
Finally, the social protection system in Korea has been expanded and strengthened in the aftermath of the 1997 financial crisis, with the introduction and reinforcement of four social insurances systems. However the current system has still many problems : 1) poors and irregular workers excluded from welfare programs, 2) low benefit level of public pension and social assistance, 3) fragmented welfare delivery systems between the central and local governments, and inside the central government. Also given the population ageing and low fertility and the low economic growth since the late 1990s, the government is concerned about the future of social protection system. Korea is now at a crossroads, seeking alternative social protection models beyond the limits of existing social insurance system.
목차
Abstract 1
요 약 5
제1장 서 론 9
제1절 연구목적 11
제2절 연구방법 15
제3절 연구내용과 한계점 19
제2장 이론적 검토 21
제1절 개념정의 23
제2절 선행연구 검토 26
제3절 비교연구를 위한 분석방법 37
제3장 일본의 사회보장체계 43
제1절 들어가며 45
제2절 사회경제적 배경 45
제3절 사회보장제도의 구조와 특징 58
제4절 주요 사회보장제도의 실태와 진단 67
제5절 최근 복지현안과 개혁동향 81
제6절 맺으며 97
제4장 중국의 사회보장체계 101
제1절 들어가며 103
제2절 사회경제적 배경 103
제3절 사회보장체계의 구조와 특징 111
제4절 주요 사회보장정책의 실태와 진단 121
제5절 맺으며 135
제5장 대만의 사회보장체계 141
제1절 들어가며 143
제2절 사회경제적 배경 144
제3절 사회보장제도의 구조와 특징 156
제4절 주요 사회보장정책의 실태와 진단 165
제5절 최근 복지현안과 개혁동향 178
제6절 맺으며 187
제6장 태국의 사회보장체계 191
제1절 들어가며 193
제2절 사회경제적 배경 193
제3절 사회보장제도의 역사와 구조 198
제4절 주요 사회보장제도의 실태와 진단 201
제5절 최근 복지현안과 개혁동향 209
제6절 맺으며 217
제7장 베트남의 사회보장체계 219
제1절 들어가며 221
제2절 사회경제적 배경 222
제3절 사회보장체계의 구조와 특징 231
제4절 주요 사회보장제도의 실태와 진단 235
제5절 최근 복지현안과 개혁동향 256
제6절 맺으며 262
제8장 한국의 사회보장체계 265
제1절 들어가며 267
제2절 사회경제적 배경 269
제3절 사회보장제도의 구조와 특징 279
제4절 주요 사회보장정책의 실태와 진단 287
제5절 최근 복지현안과 개혁동향 302
제6절 맺으며 310
제9장 결론: 아시아 주요국 사회보장체계의 비교 313
제1절 다른 시간과 다른 공간 315
제2절 공통의 도전과 상이한 조건 318
제3절 대안적 사회보장체계를 위한 도전 330
제4절 몇 가지 제안 335
참고문헌 337
부 록 351
보고서 번호
연구보고서 2016-45
ISBN
978-89-6827-406-0
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