본 연구는 모성보호제도를 중심으로 일·가정양립 제도의 정책 평가를 실시하여 향후 정책 개선 과제를 도출함을 목적으로 하였다. 분석 결과에서 알 수 있는 정책적 함의는 모성보호제도가 노동시장의 구조적 요인과 밀접히 연계되어 있다는 점이다. 현재 모성보호제도가 가지고 있는 한계나 효과는 노동시장의 구조적 장애요인으로 인하여 결정되고 있다는 의미이다. 제도의 사각지대와 여성의 경력단절 문제가 구조화되어 모성보호제도의 활용도를 떨어뜨리고, 노동시장 특성 집단 간 제도 활용의 보편성을 훼손시키고 있는 것으로 해석된다. 따라서 향후 모성보호제도 개선을 위해서는 노동시장의 구조화 된 관행을 함께 개선하려는 조치가 병행되어야 한다. 모성보호 제도 자체만의 부분적 수정을 통해서는 고용 효과나 출산율 제고 효과를 기대하기 어려울 것으로 판단된다.
This study aims to suggest policy recommendations by evaluating the work-family reconciliation policy, especially the maternity protection scheme. Six key findings were identified. Firstly, many female workers were excluded from the benefit of the maternity protection scheme. About a quarter of those covered by the employment insurance did not, or could not, take maternity leave, and approximately one-third did not, or could not take parental leave in 2015. Secondly, the utilization rate of the paid leave is relatively low in the vulnerable group in the labor market, such as low-wage workers, micro-enterprise workers and the service workers. It means that the universality and equality of the policy has not been guaranteed. Thirdly, the average annual maternity leave replacement rate had declined gradually since 2006 although the declining trend varied across income quintile, The middle-quintiles are more likely to see a sharp decrease among all groups. On the other hand, the average annual parental leave replacement rate had fluctuated between 29.2% and 40.3% from 2006 to 2015. Fourthly, women who experienced career interruptions within six months before or after the delivery had extremely low utilization rate of the paid leave compared to the women who had not experienced career interruption. In addition, the utilization rate of the non-regular workers and the private sector workers were lower than regular employee and those of the public sector, respectively. Fifthly, there was a strong correlation between the characteristics of maternity protection policy and the fertility rate at the country level among OECD countries. The length of maternity and parental leave, the paid leave replacement rate, and the social expenditures related to the maternity protection policy as a percentage of GDP were positively correlated with the national fertility rate. While there was no causal relationship between length of maternity and parental leave, paid leave replacement rate and fertility rate. Lastly, there was a positive, statistically significant effect of parental leave on having additional children. However, there was no statistically significant effect of maternity leave on having additional children. The most crucial implication from our various analyses is that the maternity protection policy is intimately related to the labor market institutions. The effect and limitation of maternity protection policy were determined by labor market vulnerabilities. The blind spot in maternity protection scheme and the issue of career interruption are structured, which lowers the utilization of the policy and undermines the universality of utilization. Therefore, the reform of the labor market is essential in order to improve the effects of maternity protection policy on employment and fertility. In detail, it is necessary to inspect the excluded female workers from the employment insurance for removing the blind spot of the maternity protection scheme. Next, increasing job security is needed since the utilization of the maternity protection scheme is affected by the job security. The special protection measures would be required for non-regular workers as well as the general measures to stabilize female employment. In addition, strengthening of the labor inspection system would be a solution for promoting the job security of female workers. Finally, the wage replacement of paid leave is raised in order to increase the rate of maternity and parental leave utilization.
Abstract 1 요 약 5 제1장 서 론 9 제2장 기존 연구 및 평가틀 15 제1절 기존 연구 17 제2절 평가틀 27 제3장 정책 추진 배경 및 현황 35 제1절 휴가 및 휴직 정책 37 제2절 근로시간 관련 정책 46 제3절 기업 지원 정책 55 제4장 사업 평가 63 제1절 대상자 규모 분석 65 제2절 제도 이용자 특성 분석 75 제3절 여성 근로자의 제도 이용 행태와 영향 요인 90 제5장 국가 비교 연구 107 제1절 OECD 국가의 모성보호제도 현황 109 제2절 모성보호제도의 출산율 제고 효과 113 제3절 주요 국가의 휴가휴직제도 사례 124 제6장 정책의 효과성평가 129 제1절 평가 방법 및 기술통계 131 제2절 분석 결과 134 제7장 요약 및 정책적 함의 139 제1절 연구 결과 요약 141 제2절 정책적 함의 143 참고문헌 147