여성노동-출산 및 양육행태와 정책과제

제목
여성노동-출산 및 양육행태와 정책과제
Female Labor Force Participation, Childbirth, Parenting and Policy Implications
저자

박종서김문길김은정이상림조성호; 양지윤

키워드
여성경제활동참가율; 노동시장제도; 가계내 임금구조; 부부의 시간배분; 저출산 대응정책
발행연도
2015
발행기관
한국보건사회연구원
초록
여성의 혼인, 임신, 출산 및 양육행위는 개인을 둘러싼 제도적 맥락에 영향을 받는다는 전제하에, 노동시장제도가 여성의 출산에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다.
국가 단위 노동시장 제도 및 국내 지역 노동시장 제도가 출산에 미치는 영향을 규명하였고, 여성의 생애사건에 따른 노동시장의 진입/이탈 요인을 밝혀냈다. 또한 가구 내 여성임금 및 여성의 시간배분행태와 출산과의 상관성을 살펴봄으로써 가족 내 제도적 특성이 출산에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다.

The aim of this study is to analyze the correlation between women’s pregnancy, childbirth and parenting and the institutional context of the labor market. This study examines the relationship between fertility and labor market institutions. In addition, this study explores the changes of labor force participation of women in terms of life events. Also, this study investigates the wage distribution of the household income and the time allocation of couples to discuss the interrelationship between the family structure and labor market institutions.
There are five key findings of this study. To begin with, analysis of macro-level data from OECD countries shows that fertility rates are positively correlated with income inequality among OECD countries with the exception of the social democratic countries. In contrast, fertility rates tend to be higher in OECD countries with lower gender inequalities. Regarding the labor market environment, unemployment rates, female unemployment rates and low wage worker ratio are negatively related to fertility rates, while female employment rate is positively related to fertility rates.
Secondly, the result from multi-level analysis reveals that regional labor market institutions influence fertility and fertility decisions. It is found that the female labor force participation rates are positively associated with women’s parity and birth plan, whereas the rate of the wage workers among women of childbearing age are negatively associated with women’s parity and birth plan.
Thirdly, female employment rate has been shown overall upward trend since the mid-80s. Nevertheless, career interruption of women has got worse since 2000. From the empirical models based on a life course perspective estimated suggest that the career interruption of women can be explained by education attainment, level of income and full-time position or not. However, the determinants of the career interruption at first birth are distinguished from the other life events.
Fourthly, at the micro-level, there is no correlation between women’s wage and fertility, while there is a positive correlation between the ratio of women’s wage within family income and the likelihood of fertility.
Finally, the time allocation of wives is dependent on the spouse wage. Husband’s income is positively associated with wife’s household labor time, while negatively associated with wife’s paid labor time. The results from investigating the relationship between the division of household work time and fertility shows that sharing household labor has profound implications for fertility.
From these findings, some policy implications can be suggested. Above all, it is needed to provide decent jobs for women and prevent their career interruption. In addition, the institutional circumstance which can support marriage, pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting should be established. Finally, fertility policies should consider not only improving work-life balance, but also promoting income redistribution and gender equality.
목차
Abstract 1
요 약 5
제1장 서 론 11
제1절 문제제기 13
제2절 연구방법 18
제3절 연구내용 19
제2장 노동시장 불평등과 출산: 국가별 횡단면 분석 21
제1절 문제제기 23
제2절 자료와 기초통계 27
제3절 상관관계 35
제4절 국가별 횡단면 분석 53
제5절 소결 59
제3장 지역 노동시장의 특성과 출산율 63
제1절 문제제기 65
제2절 지역별 경제활동 참가율과 출산율의 상관성 72
제3절 지역 노동시장 구조가 개인의 출산에 미치는 영향 82
제4절 소결 102
제4장 여성의 생애과정에 따른 노동시장 이탈 105
제1절 문제제기 107
제2절 여성의 노동시장 참여 실태 110
제3절 생애시간 발생에 따른 노동시장 이탈 123
제4절 소결 139
제5장 여성임금과 출산 145
제1절 문제제기 147
제2절 여성의 고용 및 임금 현황 154
제3절 여성임금과 출산과의 관계 분석 169
제4절 소결 177
제6장 여성의 시간배분과 출산행태 181
제1절 문제제기 183
제2절 기술적 분석 206
제3절 시간배분 결정요인과 출산행동 216
제4절 소결 229
제7장 결 론 233
제1절 연구결과 요약 235
제2절 연구결과의 정책적 함의 241
참고문헌 247
부 록 257
보고서 번호
연구보고서 2015-21-04
ISBN
978-89-6827-267-7
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