본 연구는 국내 양육지원 정책 현황 및 양육실태 분석을 통하여 한국사회의 자녀돌봄 지원 정책이 부모의 양육욕구에 실질적으로 얼마나 부합된 환경을 제공하는지 살펴보았다. 전 계층 보육·교육비 지원 및 양육수당 지급에 따라 수요자들의 양육의 경제적 부담완화는 긍정적으로 이루어진 것으로 조사되었으나 여전히 비용지원확대에 대한 요구가 높은 것으로 나타났다. 양육수당 수급현황에 따르면 영아기 가정양육 수요가 상당히 높은 것으로 나타났다. 가정양육지원서비스(아이돌보미,사설베이비시터, 친인척)를 이용하는 가구의 경우 자율적인 이용시간에 따른 만족도가 가장 높은 것으로 조사되었다. 또한 맞벌이 가구의 경우 여성에게 부과되는 양육책임은 여전히 큰 것으로 조사되었다. 이러한 분석결과에 따라 돌봄지원 서비스 개선을 위해서는 최우선적으로 취업모의 우선순위가 고려된 정책설계가 필요하다. 이와 함께, 아이돌보미와 같은 가정양육지원 서비스의 확대가 필요하며 기존에 제공되고 있는 시설서비스의 운영시간에 따른 지원체계 개선이 이루어져야 할 것이다.
Government’s responsibility for child care has been strengthened since 2013 by ‘the free child care policy’. At this backdrop, this study, with an analysis of child-rearing conditions, looks into whether the government’s parenting support is providing parents with a suitable nurturing environment. Major parenting support policies include free child care, home care allowance and public nanny service. Survey results show that the financial burden of parenting has been reduced due to free child care and home care allowance. Nevertheless, the demand for financial support for parenting is still high. Looking into the age usage of home care allowance, the demand for home based care for infants is found to be significantly high. In addition, for those who are using home based care services such as public nanny service, private nanny service and relatives nanny service, satisfaction with the hours of use turns out to be very high. The flexibility of time use is recognized as a very great advantage of the service for dual-income households because the service is to provide care for working parents till late hours. Furthermore, although work-life imbalance has been reduced over the past few years, child rearing burden on working mothers is still high. Based on the findings, it is deemed necessary to ensure service priorities to enhance parenting support for dual-income families. In addition, there is a need to expand the public nanny service to satisfy the demand for the home based care service of dual-income households. In order to operate child care facilities more efficiently, it is necessary to differentiate child care services based on the use of time. We suggest that child care facilities provide all-day services to dual-income households and provide part-time services to single-income households. Furthermore, the government needs to put more efforts in increasing the number of public child care facilities as well as the quality of related services. Finally, child rearing and parenting support policy needs to be made from the gender equality perspective and more efforts should be made to improve work-life balance. In other words, measures are needed to ensure both parents to equally share child-rearing responsibilities.