사회분야 글로벌 다자기구에의 전략적 참여 및 효과적인 활용방안 연구
Future social policy directions for OECD
OECD의 소득; 불평등과 사회정책
OECD는 경제이슈와 더불어 사회이슈에 있어 연구 및 실행 측면에서 가장 전문적인 국제기구이다. 한국이 사회복지분야에서 국제사회에 기여하고 국익을 제고하기 위해서는 OECD의 글로벌 거버넌스에 효과적인 대응과 참여가 필요하다. 사회정책 관련해서 전통적인 적극적 노동시장정책에 초점을 맞춘 OECD 글로벌 거버넌스에 효과적으로 대응 및 참여하기 위해서는 포괄적 측면의 사회안전망 구축 정책을 OECD 사회정책에 반영케 하는 노력이 요구된다.
The development of welfare states over the last 40 years can be divided into three phases according to social welfare scholars. Up until the early 1980s, social policy-making in most European welfare states had focused on traditional social security tools such as unemployment compensation and subsidy. Since then, the overall direction of policy had evolved towards the so-called 'active' social welfare until the late 1990s. The level of benefits was reduced due to retrenchment, rights and obligations were rebalanced, and work incentives were strengthened by various employment programs. In this phase, most European welfare states created conditions for making work more attractive by implementing ‘making work pay’ policies and enhancing flexibility of labor. However, the concept of 'active welfare state’ recently went through a transformation with the emergence of ‘knowledge economy.’ Welfare policies shifted toward securing more circulating capital by aggressively investing in human capital, thereby providing an educated workforce in order to dispel concerns that snowballing social welfare costs ultimately affect job seeking and competition among social members. It is increasingly recognized that investment in human capital and policies for technology development are active tools not only to spur economic growth and innovations but to provide opportunities for all. Social security policy had to be restructured and redesigned to meet the new requirements. In other words, emphasis was no longer on compensation but on prevention. Such preventive approach to social policy- making reduces compensation for the unemployed while encouraging active participation in the labor market and improving the quality of human capital. The new social welfare policy is designed to help more people 'work' and make them responsible for their own living, thereby enabling people to increase investment in social and human capital and be more responsible for their life. To date the major social policy approach in OECD is more oriented to the conventional ideas of active labor market policies. What then, are the implications that social policy and policy paradigm shift in welfare states provide for OECD? This comes down to the following two key points: First of all, the cause of the problems of welfare-to-work policies based on the traditional active welfare system should be identified and used for future policy-making. Welfare- to-work programs adopted by many countries for addressing poverty and inequality of certain social classes were intended to encourage the desire to work and self-reliance of the poor. Though these programs got people off benefits by giving them a job, they have been criticized for failing to get them off a vicious cycle of poverty. It can be said that such problems of welfare-to-work system were caused by the recently emerging social risks such as short-lived employment of unskilled workers, low pay for unskilled jobs, and burden to support dependents (children and senior citizens). These issues tend to get more serious in times of economic crises. Therefore, welfare-to-work system should go beyond a simple job training program to develop into a more comprehensive social safety net to effectively address the problems of the poor; by providing higher education and other training opportunities, guaranteeing minimum wage, improving stability of the workplace, and sharing the burden of supporting dependents. Second, crucial elements to be emphasized for future social policy-making should be identified. The first point to consider is the shift of focus from compensation for unemployment or health risks to prevention of such risks. It is assumed that, it is better to handle a crisis before it happens than to wait until the last moment because its impact might be larger than expected, and therefore, harder to remedy. It is also desirable for a social policy to offer individuals more opportunities to become an independent and responsible citizen. In addition, redistribution between the current generation and future generations should be highlighted rather than redistribution only within a generation. Social policy should focus on social integration by helping individuals get out of isolation and improve ability, or encouraging public/private investment in human capital.
Abstract 1 요약 5
제1장 서론 및 OECD의 사회이슈 13 제1절 경제위기 대처: 일자리 창출과 사회통합 확대 17 제2절 사회 보호 이슈 21
제2장 OECD의 사회정책 동향과 고찰 29 제1절 OECD 국가의 소득 불평등 증가 33 제2절 소득 불평등이 경제성장에 미치는 영향 41 제3절 “OECD 보고서” 결론 49 제4절 OECD의 사회정책 고찰 52
제3장 아세안의 사회보호 정책 59 제1절 아세안 국가의 사회보호 제도 61 제2절 위기에 대한 사회보호 대응 65